New and Recent Releases
Naxiyamtáma (Snake River-Palouse) Oral Traditions from Mary Jim, Andrew George, Gordon Fisher, and Emily Peone
Collected and edited by Richard D. Scheuerman and Clifford E. Trafzer
Foreword by Carrie Jim Schuster
With color plates by John Clement
“An invaluable treasure of Indigenous insights and experiences not previously publically shared, River Song is a wonderful entry into what is most cherished within the homes of four Naxiyamtáma family traditions.”—Rodney Frey, Professor of American Indian Studies and Anthropology at the University of Idaho and author of Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu'umsh - Coeur d'Alene Indians
For many generations into the twentieth century Mary Jim, her family, and their ancestors lived a free and open life on the Columbia Plateau. They moved on horseback from the Snake River to Badger Mountain to Oregon’s Blue Mountains. They interacted and intermarried within a vast region in the Northwest, and their stories are rich in content, interpretation, and nuance.
Denied a place on their ancestral lands, the original Snake River-Palouse people were forced to scatter. After most relocated to Nez Perce, Umatilla, Warm Springs, Yakama, and Colville reservations, maintaining their cultural identity became increasingly difficult. Still, elders continued to pass down oral histories to their descendants, insisting youngsters listen with rapt attention.
Beginning in the 1970s and continuing over three decades, Naxiyamtáma elders—in particular Mary Jim, Andrew George, Gordon Fisher, and Emily Peone—chose to share their stories with a research team. They hoped to teach American Indian history in a traditional manner as well as refute incorrect versions. In the process, multiple themes emerged—a pervasive spirituality tied to the Creator and environment; a covenant relationship and sacred trust to protect and preserve their traditional lands; storytelling as a revered art form that reveals life lessons, and finally, belief in cyclical time and blood memory.
All four of the featured elders had ties to the Plateau people’s leadership families and had lived in the traditional way—gathering, hunting, and fishing. They participated in the ancient Wáshani religion and were raised to honor the Creator through First Food ceremonies. In their retelling, the authors have endeavored to capture their original voices and remain true to Snake River-Palouse oral traditions.
Creation stories include “The Creatures of Cloudy Mountain,” “Why Coyote Made the Palouse Hills,” and “The Origin of Palouse Falls.” Although narratives told by other groups are similar to Mary Jim’s “How Coyote Learned to Fish,” and Gordon Fisher’s “How Beaver Brought Fire to the People,” the versions in River Song offer a distinct Naxiyamtáma perspective.
Authors Richard Scheuerman, Associate Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at Seattle Pacific University, and Clifford Trafzer, Distinguished Professor of History and Costo Chair in Native American studies at the University of California-Riverside, previously paired up to write the award-winning book, Renegade Tribe: The Palouse Indians and the Invasion of the Pacific Northwest. In River Song, they also describe their method and approach—one that will serve as a model for conducting Native American cultural research.
In the Path of Destruction
Eyewitness Chronicles of Mount St. Helens
A napping volcano blinked awake in March 1980. Two months later, when that mountain roared, Jim Scymanky was about twelve miles northwest, logging a north slope above Hoffstadt Creek. “Rocks zinged through the woods, bouncing off trees, then the tops of trees snapped off… Suddenly I could see nothing…it got hot right away, then scorching hot and impossible to breathe. The air had no oxygen, like being trapped underwater…I was being cremated, the pain unbearable.”
Mike Hubbard was further away—sixteen miles northwest, near Green River. “It was hard to breathe, my mouth hot and full of dust. I was on my knees, my back to the hot wind. It blew me along, lifting my rear so I was up on my hands…It was hot but I didn’t feel burned—until I felt my ears curl.”
Ken Sugarman’s encounter came on a highway near Yakima. “My wife and I drove toward Tieton fifteen miles northwest. Only five minutes since the kids mentioned the cloud, ash rained heavily, the sky so dark I had headlights on.”
Steve Malone, at the University of Washington Seismology Laboratory, was inconsolable. “We’d failed. For two months we’d counted and located thousands of earthquakes, looked for changes to anticipate an eruption. Then it just happened. It killed many people. It killed David Johnston. We could hardly work.”
Author Richard Waitt was part of a U.S. Geological Survey team doing volcano research in the Cascades, and was one of the first to arrive following the mountain’s early rumblings. His journey collecting eyewitness accounts began with a conversation in a bar the third week after Mount St. Helens erupted. The couple he met barely outraced a searing ash cloud, and Waitt realized their experiences could inform geologic studies. He eventually conducted hundreds of interviews—sometimes two and three decades later—often making multiple visits to gather additional details, correct errors, and resolve discrepancies.
A meticulous scientist with intimate knowledge of Mount St. Helens, Waitt delivers a detailed and accurate chronicle of events. He tapped numerous primary sources—interviews, legal depositions, personal diaries, geologists’ field notes, radio logs, and police records. Newspaper stories and even sun shadows on photographs revealed additional intricacies. In the Path of Destruction’s eruption story unfolds through unforgettable, riveting narratives—the heart of a masterful chronology that also delivers engrossing science, history, and journalism.
Listen to Richard Waitt's interview about how eyewitness accounts helped scientists on OPB's Think Out Loud.
Native Trees of Western Washington
A Photographic Guide
Kevin W. Zobrist
Soft layers of moss and pine needles carpet the ground as dappled sunlight or misty rain filters through the forest canopy’s branches. Western Washington woodlands can be enchanting. Fortunately these magical places are abundant, covering half the state’s soil. Affording beauty and recreation as well as economic value, they endure as one of the area’s most important natural assets.
In Native Trees of Western Washington, Washington State University’s Kevin Zobrist examines regional indigenous trees from a forestry specialist’s unique perspective. He explains basic tree physiology and a key part of their ecology—forest stand dynamics. He groups distinctive varieties into sections, describing common lowland conifers and broadleaved trees, high-elevation species found in the Olympic Mountains and western side of the Cascades, and finally, those with a very limited natural range and small, isolated populations. Numerous full-color photographs illustrate key traits.
In addition, Zobrist discusses notable features, offering information about where to find particular species. He includes brief lists of some common human uses, citing Native American medicines, food, and materials, as well as commercial utilization from the time of European settlement to the present day. The result is a delightful and enlightening exploration of western Washington timberlands.
Follow Kevin Zobrist on Twitter: @WSUExtForestry
Check out the Great Tree Hunt
Barnyards and Birkenstocks
Why Farmers and Environmentalists Need Each Other
Rural America is struggling. The average farmer is now 57 years old. Family agriculture is gradually fading, leading to declines in related industries. Food sources—increasingly anonymous, industrial, and international—are also less secure. Despite these concerns, many communities regularly convert prime farmland to environmentally harmful applications.
Yet food cultivation, too, has profound ecological consequences. Working agriculture occupies fully half of the total U.S. land base, and farms consume eighty percent of the nation’s water. Although they often prevent sprawling development, improve water quality, or provide wildlife habitat, they also pollute rivers, drain wetlands, or emit destructive greenhouse gasses.
Don Stuart believes these two dangerous trends—the loss of farms and damage to ecosystems—are connected, and that a major cause is the political deadlock between farmers and environmental activists. Instead of achieving a reasonable balance, this stalemate stalls funding for incentive programs and prevents progress toward essential regulations.
Stuart offers a radical proposal: collaboration would advance the economic needs of one group while furthering the conservation efforts of the other. With a goal of promoting understanding, he presents opposing perspectives on topics such as incentives, regulations, government spending, environmental markets, growth management, climate change, public lands grazing, and the Federal Farm Bill. He points out costs of continued political impasse. Finally, drawing from a lifetime spent settling conflicts, he identifies characteristics of successful community programs to suggest a model for a prosperous, healthy future.
Author Don Stuart served as the Pacific Northwest Regional Director of the American Farmland Trust for 11 years, and before that he was the executive director of a commercial fisheries trade association and the Washington Association of Conservation Districts. Currently, he engages in private consulting work on agriculture and environmental issues.
What readers are saying:
“[Don Stuart] forcefully makes the case that there is significant peril to the goals of each [side] if the current stalemate over environmental concerns about farming operations continues unresolved. This book is a valuable resource for farmers, environmentalists, academics, policymakers, students and regulators.”—Peter Goldmark, Washington State Commissioner of Public Lands
“The author is uniquely qualified to comment on the conflicts and common interests of farmers and environmentalists from long experience on both sides. People…will find [his] insights on the two camps extremely useful in tailoring programs effectively.”—Dennis Canty, Pacific Northwest Regional Director, American Farmland Trust and coauthor, Guide to Environmental Markets for Farmers and Ranchers
Listen to Don's radio interview on KEXP's Mind Over Matters with Diane Horn
Touring with the Wylie Camping Company in America's First National Park
Jane Galloway Demaray
“The author [tells] an important story here, not just of her great great uncle’s contributions to the history of Yellowstone, but also of the fascinating politics and economics of park concessions administration...a thoroughly readable and engaging study.”—David Wrobel, professor of history, University of Oklahoma
In 1872 Congress established Yellowstone National Park, and its vast wonders soon mesmerized early sightseers. One of them, William Wallace Wylie, visited in July 1880. The school superintendent was immediately smitten. He returned to Bozeman, Montana, and arranged his first tour group a few weeks later. His initial effort evolved into a full-fledged business, and from 1896 to 1905 the Wylie Camping Company fed, sheltered, and guided thousands of Victorian vacationers through relaxed week-long tours of geysers, hot pools, waterfalls, and trails.
Despite the park’s wilderness setting, Wylie lured travelers with promises of comfort, ease, and delicious meals, claiming such luxuries as “woven wire springs under fine mattress beds; no sleeping on the ground…fine covered buggies to ride in.“ His “new method of caring for tourists” embraced separate dining tents, partitioned sleeping tents heated with stoves, informative outings, and fresh-air bonfires. His policy of hiring honest, hard-working college students and teachers who utilized the park as an outdoor classroom set an example for concessions throughout Yellowstone and other national parks.
But operating the Wylie Camping Company was a formidable task. There were bears, runaway horses, and cantankerous stage coach drivers. Anecdotes include observations of wildlife, the arrest of a bison poacher, and an altercation with the park’s game warden, Buffalo Jones. In order to serve his unique clientele, Wylie contended with park superintendents, railroad officials, Washington, D.C., legislators, and various other political personalities. Eventually the demands became too great, and he sold his business. But the Wylie Camping Company and its owner’s unswerving efforts helped develop, define, and preserve tourism in the West, particularly in America’s first national park.
The National Coast Defense System and the Fortification of Puget Sound, 1894-1925
David M. Hansen
Today, altered landscapes and an array of concrete structures—remnants of Puget Sound fortifications—serve as silent reminders of a unique chapter in Pacific Northwest history. The ocean inlet’s wide entrance, deep waters, and recurrent fog left it vulnerable to attack. The waterway finally became part of the National Coast Defense System in 1894, when the value of real and personal property along its shores surpassed $160 million.
With the completion of construction on Point Wilson, Admiralty Head, and Marrowstone Point, the harbor became one of the most heavily guarded in the United States. Continued technical advances improved batteries, carriages, guns, communication, and fire control. Effective resistance also relied upon maintaining a sufficient number of highly trained enlisted men.
The removal of guns for use in World War I, as well as the redirection of specialized troops to field artillery units heralded the system’s demise. Eventually, armed forces abandoned permanent fortifications in favor of mobile artillery. None of Puget Sound’s five forts ever saw battle, but like many military installations, perhaps their greatest value rested in the strong deterrent secured by their existence.
Battle Ready describes the designs, innovations, and frustrations that were part of implementation as well as the experience of serving in the fortifications during the period of their greatest importance. The extensively researched volume summarizes the fascinating saga of Washington State’s seacoast defense and presents the broad story in both a national and local context.
What readers are saying:
“A contribution to the field… the first scholarly attempt to describe the evolution of the seacoast defenses of Puget Sound and to put them in the context of national defense policy.”—Bolling Smith, Editor, Coast Defense Journal
“A scholarly study of the Puget Sound forts has been a long time coming, and is sorely needed...I welcome this work.”—William Woodward, Ph.D., Professor of History, Seattle Pacific University
Global Community and Economic Development in the Small Town West
Don E. Albrecht
The vastness and isolation of the American West forged a dependence on scarce natural resources—especially water, forests, fish, and minerals. The small towns clustered near these assets were often self-sufficient and culturally distinct. By 1941, mass media, as well as improved transportation and infrastructure, propelled these sequestered settlements into the mass society era. Today, the internet is shaping another revolution, and it promises both obstacles and opportunity. Some formerly prosperous communities struggle to survive, while others attempt to cope with unprecedented growth.
Seeking to understand the impact of a global society on western small towns, the author, Director of the Western Rural Development Center at Utah State University, conducted strategic planning roundtables in thirteen states. The gatherings brought three major concerns to the surface: sustaining natural resources, creating vibrant rural economies, and enhancing educational and employment prospects. Rethinking Rural summarizes characteristics of the isolation, mass society, and global society eras, provides an overview of western environmental history, explores the significant challenges identified during the forum discussions. More importantly, it offers guidance to community leaders, policy makers, and scholars seeking ways to address poverty, increasing inequality, and shifting demographics, as well as resource management and conservation issues.
The Tumultuous Life of a Western Road Builder
Keith C. Petersen
John Mullan’s celebrated road—a 625-mile link that connected the Missouri and Columbia Rivers—established the West Point graduate as an accomplished engineer. After completing the Northwest’s first engineered highway at age thirty-two, he lived for nearly another half century, a period of dynamic change. When he died in 1909, automobiles were making their initial crossings along his route. The arterial eventually became a critical link in America’s longest interstate freeway, I-90. Yet despite frequent mentions in books about the nineteenth century Northwest, the soldier/explorer has remained little more than a caricature: a dashing young Army officer who comes West, builds one of its most important thoroughfares, and then disappears from regional literature.
Now, in lively prose, Idaho State Historian Keith Petersen takes a fresh look at Mullan, whose road significantly impacted the development of the Northwest. His story includes business partnerships and personal relationships with some of the West’s most intriguing characters: Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, General William T. Sherman, Chico founder John Bidwell, Idaho gold discoverer Elias Pierce, Yakama Indian chief Owhi, and others. The first comprehensive portrayal of John Mullan’s life, this deeply researched biography probes the explorer’s complex personality, his rise to fame, and his fall from grace.
What readers are saying:
“Petersen’s biography infuses John Mullan’s many-sided story with both the road-builder’s personal energy and a thorough context of the forces that drove his work. It also casts an unflinching eye on the military aspects of Mullan’s experience in the Interior Northwest, and what that meant for the tribes. A full account, gracefully rendered.”—Jack Nisbet, author of Sources of the River; The Mapmaker’s Eye; and The Collector: David Douglas and the Natural History of the Pacific Northwest
“It turns out John Mullan was a human being. Aspects of Mullan’s life have been studied in depth, but few, if any, had taken a clear-eyed look at the whole picture until Keith Petersen came along to fit the pieces together—Mullan’s boyhood days, the hunger for success and fame that drove him—sometimes to maniac extremes—in family and professional relationships, in explorations and road building exploits, and in his later careers as a developer and attorney.”—Kim Briggeman, Missoulian reporter and Mullan Road historian
“John Mullan places Mullan’s life squarely within the context of the times and explains how his driven and sometimes knotty personality led to his success and his failures.”—Jon Axline, author of Conveniences Sorely Needed: Montana's Historic Highway Bridges, 1860-1956; and Speaking Ill of the Dead: Jerks in Montana History
Keith also spent a day with Washington State Magazine reporter Eric Sorensen. Read the article.
Unions, Strikes, and Violence in Depression-Era Central Washington
Sleepy little Roslyn has always been a coal town, ever since a railway company opened the first mine in 1886. Strikes are a way of life for central Washington miners and their families, but Tuesday, April 3, 1934, is different. This time, the labor shutdown divides families and pits neighbor against neighbor. Fearful children beg their fathers not to cross picket lines. “I’d rather have you yellow than dead,” one sobs. Supporters of the Western Miners Union of America—ordinary wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters—pelt cars with rocks, rotten eggs, pine cones, and cow pies. They curse and shriek insults. As the morning wears on, their taunts and assaults escalate. They fight for their husbands, fathers, brothers, and sons—tough men performing dangerous jobs.
The striking laborers typically spend ten or more hours at the workplace. Dressing, preparing lights and equipment, and traveling into the mine shaft are all done on their own time. Some trips take nearly an hour each way. The miners and their families want safer working conditions, fair wages, and a six-hour workday. They had expected their longtime national union, the United Mine Workers of America, to stand strong during contract negotiations. Instead, UMWA leaders chose dismissive actions, setting the stage for the rise of a new local organization, the Western Miners Union of America.
With a country in the midst of a national economic depression, the fledgling group faces opposition from a mighty labor union, a powerful railroad empire, and even their own government. Communist activists and other radical labor groups offer support. But when conflicting alliances turn residents of Roslyn, Cle Elem, and Ronald against each other, a heated and violent battle follows, leaving deep, lasting scars.
Author David Bullock witnessed the bitter sentiments first hand. His grandfather, a Roslyn miner, lived through the events depicted in Coal Wars. Fully documented, his refreshingly balanced account is brought to life through interviews with local residents, newspapers, court documents, and corporate archives. Capturing the details surrounding a dual union movement in the 1930s American West, the narrative also describes the region’s melting pot of working families and the socio-political impacts of New Deal policies on their lives.
Red Light to Starboard
Recalling the Exxon Valdez Disaster
Minutes before supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, before rocks ripped a huge hole in her hull and a geyser of crude oil darkened the pristine waters of Prince William Sound, the ship’s lookout burst through the chart room door. “That light, sir, it’s still on the starboard side. It should be to port, sir.” Her frantic words were merely the last in a litany of futile warnings.
A parade of promises began the next day. Exxon Shipping Company president Frank Iarossi declared, “If it is a claim that is associated with the spill, we’ve assumed full financial responsibility.” A week later, Alaska Governor Steve Cowper spoke at the Valdez Civic Center. “We don’t want anybody to think that they have to hire a lawyer and go into federal court and sue the largest corporation in America…The state of Alaska represents you. And we want to be sure that…people who are damaged by this, get compensated fairy and quickly.” He also indicated that the state would see to it Prince William Sound was cleaned up, regardless of the cost.
Eight days after the disaster, Valdez native Bobby Day flew over the spill and knew his life as a herring fisherman—a population that would be decimated by the spill—was shattered. He also struggled with feelings of betrayal and guilt and later, a divided community. His intimate portrayal lends a local perspective and provides an insider’s look at commercial fishing.
Lengthy investigations revealed cover ups, covert operations, reckless corporate management, numerous safety violations, and a broken regulatory process. At the time of the spill, oil flowed through the Alyeska pipeline at a profit of $400,000 per hour, yet In the end, the ten thousand fishermen affected by the spill spent nearly twenty years in litigation and received little compensation for their losses. Despite a massive cleanup effort, oil remains on the beaches and continues to impact marine life.
Redlight to Starboard documents a story that stunned the world, recounting regional and national events. The compelling narrative explains how an industry often seen as greedy came to be entrusted with a spectacular, fragile ecosystem, and discusses the governmental and public policy decisions that contributed to the disaster, as well as personal and environmental consequences. It also follows policy steps taken since the spill and through opportunities for citizen input and oversight, offers hope for preventing future disasters.
A History of Priest Lake, Idaho
Kris Runberg Smith with Tom Weitz
Remote and rugged, Idaho’s Priest Lake has remained a wild place. Even today, the upper lake is accessible only by foot, mountain bike, or boat. Despite being a favored location for Native American encampments, brutal winters discouraged any permanent settlement. Finally, beginning in the 1890s, adventurous souls—a wide cast of homesteaders, prospectors, speculators, and loggers—all dazzled by its natural resources, tried their best to tame it, with limited success.
Priest Lake’s impressive white pine forests did not escape notice, but grand turn-of-the-century Western expansion bypassed the area, sparing its idyllic beauty. Most venture capitalists considered the ore and timber too expensive to extract. At the same time, forestry leaders like Gifford Pinchot were guiding the country toward new land management and conservation ideals. By creating the Priest River Forest Reserve in 1897, President Cleveland expanded federal influence over the region and introduced an enduring tension between public and private lands. Still, over the ensuing decades industrial and recreational use increased.
The Dalkena Lumber Company won a Forest Service contract in 1914, and within three years, there were thirteen logging camps. The Diamond Match Company was another major lumber harvester. Along with timber, summer cottages were in demand, and rangers doled out national and state land permits in mounting numbers. Families christened their cabins with names like the Playawhile, Sylvan Haunt, Slabsides, and This-L-Du as they created a seasonal community cherished for generations.
Devastating wildfires—especially in 1926—also initiated profound change. During the Depression a few years later, work by the Civilian Conservation Corps centered on fire suppression, although conservation efforts and recreational improvements were also part of their mandate. After World War II, population growth accelerated. Electricity became commonplace in the 1940s, and in 1947, a local newspaper crowed, “Priest Lake has become a cult with many vacationists.”
Today, every privately-owned acre and lot represents past optimism, opportunity, hard work, greed, or politics. Wild Place traces those remnants—focus ing on little-known yet captivating stories of the colorful characters who navigated Priest Lake’s demanding physical, political, and economic challenges.
AVAILABLE IN MAY 2015
Encounters with the People
Written and Oral Accounts of Nez Perce Life to 1858
Compiled and edited by Dennis Baird, Diane Mallickan, and William R. Swagerty
Organized both chronologically and thematically, Encounters with the People is an edited, annotated compilation of unique primary sources related to Nez Perce history— Native American oral histories, diary excerpts, military reports, maps, and more. Generous elders shared their collective memory of carefully-guarded stories passed down through multiple generations. One described the level of attentiveness required to preserve their oral history as “so still to listen that you could hear a bird take a drink of water on the other side of the mountain.” The work begins with early Nimiipuu/Euro-American contact and extends to the period immediately after the Treaty of 1855 held at Walla Walla.
The editors scoured archives, federal document repositories, and state and local historical museums in search of little-known documents related to regional cultural and environmental history. Most of the selected material is published for the first time or is found only in obscure sources. Part of the Voices from Nez Perce Country series, Encounters with the People includes a thorough, up-to-date, annotated bibliography. Those interested in the Nez Perce, Native American Studies, Lewis and Clark, early missionary work, and Inland Northwest settlement will find it an essential reference work.
Co-editor Dennis Baird is a professor emeritus at the University of Idaho, and is the author/editor of eight books. Diane Mallickan is Nez Perce and Shoshone Paiute. Following studies at the University of Idaho, she became a park ranger and has served for more than two decades. She wrote a research paper on Starr Maxwell which was used in the University of Idaho Library reprint of Memorial of the Nez Perce Indians Residing in the State of Idaho to the Congress of the United States as well as Snake River Basin Adjudication testimonies. William R. Swagerty is the director of the John Muir Center at University of the Pacific and a contributor to the Smithsonian’s Handbook of North American Indians.
AVAILABLE IN JUNE 2015
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