Celebrated mariner Captain James Cook set sail on his third exploratory venture in July 1776, and the British Admiralty produced an official record shortly after the expedition’s 1780 return. Now, just before the 250th anniversary of Cook’s first voyage, the newest book from Washington State University (WSU) Press depicts his final quest. Captain Cook’s Final Voyage: The Untold Story from the Journals of James Burney and Henry Roberts, integrates images by official expedition artist John Webber and makes two previously unpublished eyewitness accounts easily accessible.
Tasked with confirming the outline of North America’s Pacific seaboard and searching for the elusive Northwest Passage, Cook left Plymouth and traveled to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands. From there, he explored the Pacific Northwest’s coastline, landing near Oregon’s Cape Foulweather and eventually entering Vancouver Island’s Nootka Sound. He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot and then sailed to the Bering Strait, where he identified Alaska’s Cook Inlet.
Written by two young officers and discovered languishing in Australian archives, the journals chronicle landings along Hawaii, Vancouver Island, and Alaska, as well as initial European contact and Cook’s dramatic death at Kealakekua Bay, and include charts and drawings. They provide the first reasonably accurate maps of North America’s west coast and the earliest comprehensive report from the Bering Sea ice pack. Yet the men kept their existence a secret. If the British Admiralty had discovered the documents, it likely would have ended their careers.
First lieutenant James Burney offers a scarce account from the consort vessel, Discovery, providing new details and important, thoughtful impressions of North and South Pacific people and places. Working under the notorious William Bligh, Resolution Master’s Mate Henry Roberts performed essential hydrographic and cartographic tasks. He was only a few feet away when Cook perished. His logbook includes coordinates, tables of routes, records of weather at sea, and lively depictions of shore excursions.
Editor James K. Barnett is an Alaskan attorney who has written, co-edited, or contributed to multiple books and anthologies on Captain James Cook, Captain George Vancouver, and the history of Alaska. He served as president of the Cook Inlet Historical Society in Anchorage from 1998 to 2015, and found these long forgotten journals and images while researching in Sydney nearly ten years ago. He contributes context and commentary to complete the story
PULLMAN, Wash.— Washington State University (WSU) Press has signed a new contract with Book Travelers West. The publisher had maintained a long term relationship with Hand Associates, but that group collectively decided to retire and close the business. Effective January 1, 2018, the current Book Travelers West sales team—Kurtis Lowe, John Majeska, Phoebe Gaston, and Kevin Peters—is representing Washington State University Press to the book trade. The commissioned sales group has been selling books in the thirteen Western states since 1951.
“As a regional press, we were impressed that Travelers West maintains solid relationships with larger bookstores in the West, but also visits many of the smaller booksellers as well. Store owners we asked spoke highly of the sales team. We also felt our list would complement those of other publishers they represent,” WSU Press Marketing Manager Caryn Lawton said. WSU Press is a nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, and concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
We invited forest specialist Kevin Zobrist to give us his perspective on Christmas trees:
There’s a reason Washington is the “Evergreen State”
Several western Washington native tree species—particularly Douglas-fir, grand fir, and noble fir—have a national reputation as quality Christmas trees. Grand fir and Douglas-fir grow naturally throughout western Washington, while the noble fir’s natural range is at high elevation in the Cascades from approximately Snoqualmie Pass southward. Each species has different advantages. I have always favored the true firs (as opposed to Douglas-fir) for how they look, their longevity after cutting, and, perhaps most importantly, how they smell. When I teach classes on native trees, I have participants pinch off needles from different samples, break them in half, and sniff. When it comes to grand fir, the response is always “it smells like Christmas.” Other true firs have a similar fragrance—a rich balsam scent that many people associate with the season.
I think the best part of choosing a fresh-cut Christmas tree, whether U-cut or pre-cut, is the family memories it generates. Christmas tree lots and farms sell experiences as much as trees. Some of my strongest holiday recollections involve getting the tree. I looked forward to that day almost as much as Christmas itself. Early on the first or second Saturday of December and after a slight detour for an enormous breakfast at Ken’s Truck Stop, we’d head out to a local Christmas tree farm, usually in North Bend. Recalling those days brings many things to mind—the crisp air, the smell of fresh-cut trees, hay rides, candy canes, and hot apple cider.
These days we typically get a tree from a lot, since there is one within walking distance of our house. I simply carry the tree home instead of worrying about how to transport it in a much-too-small car. Even this produces fond memories when, just as before, we meticulously try to pick the perfect one. During the big snow and deep freeze of December 2008, all the trees remained baled and frozen in big green blocks. I had to make a choice without knowing what the tree would look like. Once thawed, it unfolded into one of the best-looking trees we ever had.
All trees are not the same
Grand firs have been our standard, though in recent years we have “upgraded” to noble fir. Nobles are more expensive and their fragrance is not as strong as a grand fir, but they are wonderful in appearance. They have a slight blue tint due to two stripes on each side of their needles (grand firs only have them on the bottom). These stomatal bands reveal the location of the tree’s breathing pores. Nobles are a little more open than grand fir, which is nice for displaying ornaments.
Fresh vs. faux
In recent decades, the popularity of artificial trees has increased immensely, although they don’t have the natural look, feel, and fragrance of a real tree. There are advantages. Faux evergreens don’t make a mess, need watering, dry out, or require disposal every year, and for those with allergies, they offer a good alternative. They also don’t bring in bugs, although I appreciate even this part of the real tree experience. Every year a small spider, usually beautifully colored, is brought in on our tree. It is attracted to the light of the star at the top and builds a small web around it. I have developed a fondness for these “Christmas spiders.”
There are legitimate reasons for going artificial, but the idea that it is more environmentally friendly because it doesn’t involve cutting a live tree represents a fundamental misunderstanding of how Christmas trees are grown. No forests are leveled to produce Christmas trees. Rather, they are grown on farms and are a relatively eco-friendly form of agriculture since they do not require the same sort of annual tillage and soil disturbance as other crops. The number of young, immature trees left to continue growing far exceeds the number cut, and farms plant a replacement for each one, providing a sustainable supply year after year along with continuous vegetative cover that provides wildlife benefits.
Fresh-cut Christmas trees are a fully renewable, recyclable, and biodegradable product. As they grow, they sequester carbon that is released slowly during decomposition then recaptured by the next rotation of trees. In contrast, artificial trees are produced from nonrenewable petroleum-based chemicals that produce significant carbon emissions and other pollutants during their manufacture.
Their eventual disposal is not environmentally friendly.
The tree always looks much smaller on the lot than in your living room, so be conservative on size.
Make sure the tree is correctly labeled and priced for its species. I often see grand firs labeled as Douglas-firs, noble firs marked as grand firs, etc., especially on lots. Native Trees of Western Washington (WSU Press) can help you accurately identify the species you want.
Look for healthy green needles. Shake the tree to make sure there is not excessive needle drop.
At home, put your tree in water right away. If you are not going to set it up immediately in its stand, leave it in a bucket of water in an unheated area to avoid excessive drying.
Make a new cut on the bottom of the trunk before putting it in the tree stand, as the exposed initial cut will have sealed over, inhibiting water uptake.
Keep the bottom of the trunk in constant contact with water—don’t let the reservoir dry up. For the first few days you may have to add water several times a day, so check it frequently.
Use plain water—there is no need to add preservatives or other chemicals.
After the holidays are over, recycle your tree. In many neighborhoods, a local non-profit group such as the Boy Scouts will pick it up from your curb on a donation basis. The trees they collect are chipped and given new life as natural mulches. If you have commercial yard waste pickup, you can cut the tree up and put it in your yard waste bin to become compost. Do NOT discard your tree by dumping it in a greenbelt or natural area.
Kevin Zobrist is the author of Native Trees of Western Washington: A Photographic Guide. He is an associate professor at Washington State University and oversees the Extension Forestry program in Snohomish, Skagit, King, Island, and Whatcom Counties. He spends his time on public education, outreach, and applied research, working primarily with small forest landowners. Kevin and his colleagues offer classes, workshops, webinars, tours, and field days. They also provide online resources and “how to” publications. He can be reached at email@example.com.
We will host our twenty-sixth annual holiday book fair on Thursday, December 7, 2017 from 11:00 a.m.–3:00 p.m., in the Terrell Library Atrium on the Pullman campus. The fair highlights books published throughout the year and is open to everyone. Festivities include steep discounts of 20 -50% on all titles, drawings for free books, and complimentary refreshments.
Author and University of Idaho professor Dr. Rodney Frey will be signing copies of his recently released book, Carry Forth the Stories. Intertwining his own as well as stories from interviews, oral histories, and elders, the seasoned anthropologist/ethnographer offers a model for engaging with indigenous peoples as well as personal and professional insights into the power and value of storytelling.
The fair will feature other new titles on a variety of subjects—the 1872 Modoc War; early 1900s polar explorer Ernest Leffingwell; the creation of the North Cascades National Park; the Northwest’s Chicanx history; a regional reporter’s memoirs; the hidden history of Puget Sound’s female Native founders; and the irrigation of Idaho’s Snake River plain.
Founded in 1928 and revitalized in the 1980s, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories about the Northwest. For more information about the book fair, contact WSU Press at 509-335-7880 or 800-354-7360. Throughout the Holiday Book Fair week, December 4-8, 2017, sale prices will be valid for phone orders of all titles as well as online orders of the ten titles released since last year.
As a member of the 1906 Anglo-American Polar Expedition, Arctic explorer Ernest deKoven Leffingwell (1875–1971) helped determine the edge of the continental shelf—the first solid evidence that searching for land north of Alaska was likely futile. The University of Chicago-trained geologist remained on Flaxman Island, and with assistance from his indigenous neighbors, was the first to define and chart the geography and geology of the region. His groundbreaking work included creating detailed, accurate maps of Alaska’s northeast coast (now part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge), pioneering studies of ground ice (permafrost), explaining ice wedges, and identifying the Sadlerochit Formation, Prudhoe Bay oilfield’s main reservoir. He also observed birds and collected wildlife specimens for the Smithsonian and other institutions. “One hundred years later we’re still rediscovering things he discovered,” permafrost expert and consultant Torre Jorgenson commented.
Still, apart from geology specialists, none of it was enough to attract much notice—until Janet R. Collins, who spent thirty years as the director and map librarian at Western Washington University’s Huxley Map Library—decided Leffingwell deserved more recognition. She started giving presentations about his life, and the interest they generated led to her new biography, On the Arctic Frontier: Ernest Leffingwell’s Polar Explorations and Legacy, just published by Washington State University (WSU) Press.
At the turn of the twentieth century, people were eager for scientific knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic. Geographic societies and wealthy individuals like Alexander Graham Bell, John D. Rockefeller, and the Duchess of Bedford helped finance new explorations—including the Anglo-American Polar Expedition. For Leffingwell, it was a calling. He relied on and socialized with Inupiaq families. His favorite meat was caribou and he preferred fur to wool. Yet despite his passion for the Arctic, it wasn’t easy. Loneliness, snow blindness, weather-sensitive instruments, and the exhausting rigors of sledge travel pushed the meticulous, driven leader to his limits. Through trial and error, he coped with the drifting ice floes, interminable darkness, and bitter cold of a harsh, polar environment.
Leffingwell recorded his findings in the 250-page U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 109. To write her biography, Collins utilized that report as well as published and unpublished writing by a variety of polar expedition members, newspaper articles, and Leffingwell family papers and memories. Along with his accomplishments, she portrays Leffingwell’s interactions with Native friends, whalers, traders, fellow scientists, and others, and conveys his thoughts about daily life with all of its challenges, frustrations, and triumphs.
The 1873 Modoc War was the most expensive Indian conflict in American history, and the only one in which a general—E. R. S. Canby—was killed. Now, utilizing his skills as an award-winning broadcast journalist, author Jim Compton (1941–2014) tells the story in the newest title from Washington State University (WSU) Press, Spirit in the Rock: The Fierce Battle for Modoc Homelands. Following his sudden death, the author’s wife, Carol Arnold, a retired trial attorney, fulfilled his ambitions with a final edit and submission for publication.
Veteran correspondent Compton’s narrative examines events and experiences from a variety of angles, including those of Modoc warriors, army foot soldiers, and cavalry officers. Forced to fight for their ancestral territory in a brutal, bloody, and unjust dispute, the Modoc utilized guerilla tactics against the U.S. Army from a naturally protective setting—lava beds in what is now northern California. They fended off attacks by roughly a thousand soldiers, humiliating army troops and challenging their leaders. During peace negotiations, a charismatic Modoc chief known as Captain Jack fatally shot Canby. Four of Jack’s comrades betrayed him, he was captured, and the war ended. Captain Jack and three others were quickly tried and hanged at Fort Klamath.
Spirit in the Rock breaks important new ground as it analyzes underlying causes of the war. For the first time, the book details the schemes that ultimately drove the Modoc from their traditional homelands along the Lost River, calling attention to the intimate relationship between the Applegates and Frances Fuller Victor, whose flattering portrait of the famous Oregon pioneer family in various historical annals clouded understanding of the Modoc War for over a century.
A preface by respected educator and member of the Navajo Nation, Vivian Arviso, illuminates ways Native American traditions and spirituality influenced events. She also explains that the existence of the Modoc people today is a tribute to Captain Jack’s leadership, the participation of women and children in defending their land and livelihood, and the Modoc cultural spirit. In addition, historian Boyd Cothran’s afterword describes how the Modoc War shaped national perceptions of the Native American fight for survival in the West.
Original black and white photographs from the author’s private collection illustrate the story, and color images by Seattle photographer Bill Stafford reveal a contemporary view of Modoc Country. Text and maps highlight the army’s strategies as well as the brilliant maneuvers made by Modoc warriors.
Meticulously researched and footnoted, with an extensive bibliography, the book also explains why the U.S. Attorney General ordered a military tribunal to try Captain Jack as a belligerent of a foreign power. One hundred and thirty years later, the George W. Bush administration cited this precedent to justify rendition and military trial of terrorists.
Washington State University Press is pleased to announce that All for the Greed of Gold: Will Woodin’s Klondike Adventure, has won the 2017 Mary Lee Spence Documentary Book Award. The prize was announced at the award banquet at the Mining History Association’s annual meeting held in Fairbanks, Alaska on Friday, June 16, 2017. Winning editor Catherine Spude attended. Established in 2013, the biannual honor recognizes mining history books that are edited works, compilations of documents (letters, previously unpublished manuscript reminiscences, oral histories), or significant photograph histories, or related genres. The winning author/editor receives a $500 cash prize.
William Jay Woodin was on board when the steamship Cleveland left Seattle’s docks on March 1, 1898, traveling with his father and several others. It was the nineteenth century’s last great gold rush, but rather than mine, they planned to earn their fortune by providing supplies. Unlike many stampeders, Will’s party chose to take both the White Pass Trail and the Tutshi Trail, and his story offers a rare glimpse into ordeals suffered along this less common, seldom chronicled route.
Part of an emerging middle class who, with minimal formal education, left farm life to seek urban employment, Will’s experiences epitomize the story of how working-class men endured a grueling Yukon journey. Whether packing tons of goods on their own backs or building boats at the Windy Arm camp, his accounts bring to light the cooperation and camaraderie necessary for survival, and his simple yet perceptive observations reveal much about how the average Klondike stampeder lived, worked, and struggled to overcome hardships.
Enhanced with family photographs and skillfully edited, Will’s writings—including diaries, a short story, and a candid 1910 memoir—record events, emotions, and reflections, as well as his youthful wonder at the beauty surrounding him. He provides specific descriptions of trail conditions, extreme weather, travel hazards, and social relationships as the horde of thousands climbed the White Pass and floated down the Yukon to Dawson. He describes the workings of the gold fields and the economics of minimizing risk.
Spude’s expert integration of the autobiography and selected journal entries places the young stampeder’s views within the context of the era’s value systems, economics and social structures, and illuminates what memoir writers sometimes fail to discuss when crafting personal narratives. A historian and archaeologist, she has written popular history for magazines and newspapers as well as numerous journal articles. Her book about the legend of Soapy Smith was a finalist for a Western Writers of America Spur Award.
Washington State University Press has released a World War II memoir written by Nicole Taflinger. Unusual because it relates struggles faced by ordinary French citizens, it also provides insight into challenges that arise when different cultures collide. Written for her children decades ago, the author’s guileless voice enhances her adolescent memories of the German occupation—an existence of fear, loss, suffering, and fierce hatred—and illustrates the immense emotional toll of war.
Born as Nicole Braux in 1927, her earliest recollections occur in the French city of Nancy, where her father owned and operated a hotel and restaurant. Her winsome stories portray childhood challenges, accomplishments, and joys. She conveys the influence and camaraderie of the generous, nurturing men and women—particularly her grandmothers and two Catholic nuns—who were an integral part of her young life. Her charming reflections paint a picture of a romantic culture still wounded by the First World War.
Nicole was twelve when her father was recalled into the reserves. A few months later, she watched German troops invade. “We peeked above the window sill and saw them…Our imaginations hadn’t exaggerated; they looked as evil, if not more so, than we’d expected!” By six o’clock that evening, it was over. Nicole and her remaining family members were under occupation. “Grandmother Marie was our savior…[she] had survived two wars; a third was simply a fact of life.”
Little by little, the Braux family adjusted. They experienced Nazi propaganda, recurrent air raid alerts, gas masks, food rationing, the Black Market, and bombings. As they struggled simply to acquire food and keep warm, thoughts of the future became irrelevant. Teachers, friends, employers, priests, nuns, and doctors disappeared overnight. Relationships became veiled in worry, suspicion and secrecy. Despite the danger, Nancy citizens quietly resisted. They concocted strategies to elude curfew. They purposely dressed to offend Germans, donning short skirts and makeup, and choosing the bright colors of the French flag. They sold tainted food to the despised troops. As the fighting drew ever closer, desperation and terror increased, but miraculous events brought hope. One day, Nicole dashed unscathed through a shower of bullets. On another, she became part of a spontaneous, compassionate, and courageous gathering of French citizens. Rebelling against the German guards, they formed a chain to toss food to starving POWs aboard a train. Just as the soldiers raised their guns toward the obstinate crowd, RAF fighter planes arrived. For her, it was “one of the most exciting and beautiful moments of the war.”
Finally the inconceivable joy of liberation day came. However, food remained scarce, the fate of her father was still unknown, and now seventeen, Nicole found herself deeply in love with Captain Ancel G. Taflinger, pilot for General George S. Patton and recipient of the Silver Star. Eventually overcoming family objections and interference, their romance culminated in a wedding that yielded a sweet end to Nicole’s season of suffering.
Season of Suffering also includes never-before-published photographs from Captain Taflinger’s collection.
What did a new kind of MRI reveal about the hearts of older male fitness fanatics? How did an unsavory kitchen blender help save the lives of monkeys in the Bronx Zoo? Why might it be better to buy eggs from your local supermarket? What salt-favoring menace lurks in hospitals and beach sand? Which ancient crop might solve modern problems?
Recent scientific studies have addressed these questions and many more. Dr. Elsa Kirsten Peters regularly pores through journals and interviews researchers, then shares the utterly fascinating results in her nationally-syndicated Rock Doc column. Now the curious geologist has compiled her favorite articles, along with a few new contributions, into Planet Rock Doc: Nuggets from Explorations of the Natural World.
With her wry sense of humor, personal anecdotes, and knack for explaining the complex in simple terms, Peters stretches far beyond geology to explore a wide range of topics related to natural and applied sciences. In the process, she reflects on the remarkable observations and inventions cultivated by great minds of the past. She comments on current debates and lends promise to the future, illuminating cutting-edge research. For easy access, articles are arranged by subject matter—geology and paleontology, energy and engines, food and agriculture, climate change, human health, biology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and education and history.
Dr. Peters, a native of rural Washington State, earned her doctorate from the Earth and Planetary Sciences Department at Harvard University. She taught undergraduate-level courses for a decade and is the author or co-author of numerous journal articles, as well as several textbooks.
Available in paperback, Planet Rock Doc is 5 1/2″ x 8 1/4″, 198 pages, and has a list price of $22.95. It is available at bookstores or can be ordered from WSU Press by calling 800-354-7360 or online at wsupress.wsu.edu. WSU Press is associated with Washington State University located in Pullman, Washington, and publishes scholarly books with a cultural or historical relationship to the Pacific Northwest.
On September 4, 2010, Canadian astronaut Bob Thirsk talked about reading in spaceon the radio program, The Next Chapter. What did he read? The Mapmaker’s Eye, by Jack Nisbet! He said his favorite spot to read was floating next to a window. (Thirsk’s portion starts about halfway through the podcast.)
On December 18, 2009, Shaper of Seattle author William H. Wilson provided additional insight into famed Seattle city engineer, Reginald Heber Thomson, in his lecture at the Seattle Public Library.
For John Charles Olmsted fans, we offer this podcast from Greenscapes author Joan Hockaday‘s talk at the Seattle Public Library on June 3, 2009.
Catch Dr. Power’s presentation at Third Place Books in Lake Forest Park, Washington, on the Pirate TV Website.
On June 1, 2007, Dear Medora author Sydney Stevens was interviewed on the KMUN After Deadline radio program by Matt Winters, editor and publisher of the Chinook Observer. Listen to the podcast.
Catastrophe to Triumph author Richard S. Hobbs and The Mapmakers Eye author Jack Nisbet were interviewed by Megan Sukys on KUOW, Seattles National Public Radio affiliate. Podcasts of her program The Beat are available. Original broadcast dates were February 6, 2007 (listen) and February 14, 2006 (listen).
The Mapmakers Eye author Jack Nisbet, was extensively interviewed for the public television documentary on Pacific Northwest explorer David Thompson. Uncharted Territory: David Thompson in the Intermountain West that has been on the air at KSPS and other PBS stations.
PULLMAN, Wash.— The 1970s and 80s saw a cultural shift in prisons across the country, but only one became the archetype of failed reform. That singular institution was the Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla. Reports of shocking incidents—extended lockdowns, riots, bombings, and murders—were splashed across newspapers and television screens nationwide. For the first time, Unusual Punishment: Inside the Walla Walla Prison, 1970–1985, tells the complete story.
May 18, 2015 marks the 35th anniversary of Earth’s largest terrestrial landslide in historical times—a result of a restless volcano and a uniquely violent eruption. The top of Mount St. Helens plowed into Spirit Lake, throwing water 860 feet above lake level, a great inland tsunami. A ground-hugging hot surge sped across valleys and ridges, killing dozens of people and nearly all other life as it leveled 234 square miles of forest.