PULLMAN, Wash.—Women Writing the West has announced Bellingham, Washington, author Candace Wellman’s Peace Weavers: Uniting the Salish Coast Through Cross-Cultural Marriages as the 2018 WILLA Literary Award Winner. A team of professional librarians, historians, and university affiliated educators selected it as representing the best of 2017 published scholarly nonfiction for women’s stories set in the American West. Wellman and her book will be honored in Walla Walla, Washington, October 25-27, 2018, at the organization’s 24th annual conference.
While helping researchers at the Washington State Archives, Candace Wellman found the vast majority of marriages in Whatcom County’s early decades were cross-cultural. Although the husbands included nearly every community founder and official, it seemed many historians considered their indigenous wives to be unknowable, unimportant, and uninteresting. Yet the alliances played a crucial role, aiding settlement and reducing regional conflict between native peoples and newcomers. The Native women served as cultural interpreters and mediators, and participated in the birth of new communities. Wellman became determined to uncover the hidden history surrounding these relationships, consulting close to two hundred collaborators.
Peace Weavers illuminates the Puget Sound legacies of four intermarried individuals. Caroline Davis Kavanaugh (Samish-Swinomish) lived on a small peninsula nearly her entire life and protected its life-giving spring. Mary Fitzhugh Lear Phillips (S’Klallam) was the first woman sent to the Washington territorial prison. Clara Tennant Selhameten (Lummi-Duwamish) was a Lummi leader’s daughter who became the county’s first farm wife. She and her husband traveled throughout the area as Methodist missionaries. Nellie Carr Lane (Sto:lo) was an entrepreneur and navigational light keeper who learned to use the court system to fight for her rights.
Their fates represent thousands of intermarriages that began as soon as the feet of European explorers hit the sands of the New World, and Wellman believes there are many more stories to be told. An expert in research methods, sociology, history, and genealogy, She began by re-scrutinizing old sources and searching for new ones, particularly legal cases. Her discoveries destroy common stereotypes about mid-1800s cross-cultural marriages, revealing remarkable, accomplished women.
Peace Weavers is paperback, 6″ x 9″, 302 pages in length, and lists for $27.95. It is available through bookstores nationwide, direct from WSU Press at 800-354-7360 or online at wsupress.wsu.edu. A nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
PULLMAN, Wash.— Author and ethnographer Dr. Rodney Frey has won the Evans Handcart Award for his book, Carry Forth the Stories: An Ethnographer’s Journey into Native Oral Tradition published by Washington State University Press. Recently announced by Utah State University’s Mountain West Center for Regional Studies, the prize recognizes the best of research and writing in biographies, autobiographies, and memoirs focusing on stories of people who have shaped the character of the Interior West. “The high quality and diversity of submissions made it a challenge for the regional and national juries to select only two winners,” said Evelyn Funda, director of the Mountain West Center.
The winner of this year’s Evans Handcart Award focuses on spirituality and the lesser-known voices in the region. Frey, who holds a Ph.D. in anthropology and is a professor of ethnography at the University of Idaho, was particularly pleased on behalf of his mentors. Over his forty-year career as an ethnographer and professor, Rodney Frey formed close relationships and successfully partnered with members of the Crow, Coeur d’Alene, Nez Perce, and Warms Springs communities. He describes Carry Forth the Stories as an “ethnographic memoir” that weaves events of his own life story with stories collected from interviews, oral histories and elders that show the power and value of storytelling. He learned by interacting with elders, participating in tribal activities, and through personal experiences. Now he hopes to help others become effective cultural researchers and teachers, supplying a model for engaging with indigenous peoples.
Frey’s transformation began with his first ethnographic study during the summer of 1974, when an elder recognized some shortcomings with the project and introduced the young graduate student to the importance of viewing and experiencing a culture from the inside. That early lesson endured, changing how he approached his research.
In his book, Frey applies indigenous learning and teaching styles, and discusses techniques such as field trips, visits with tribal elders, “family” groups, role playing, and hands-on activities in his classroom. He also addresses being attentive and honest, as well as language, cultural property rights, tribal review, and “giving back” to host communities. Finally, he shares facets of his own journey with the Sundance and beyond, seeking therapy from both Native and Western healing traditions for himself and his son. In the Foreword, Leonard Bends, retired Sundance Chief, praises Frey’s passion as well as the life he brings to the written words, and offers a moving prayer for Frey and his readers.
Carry Forth the Stories is paperback, 6″ x 9″, 286 pages, and lists for $29.95. It is available through bookstores nationwide or direct from WSU Press at 800-354-7360 or online at wsupress.wsu.edu. A nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
Foreword Magazine, Inc. hosts an annual awards program celebrating the best books from university and independent publishers. Authors and publishers submitted more than 2,000 individual titles spread across 65 genres. Foreword selected the finalists, and an expert team of booksellers and librarians from across the country chose the winners. “Choosing finalists for the INDIES is always the highlight of our year, but the job is very difficult due to the high quality of submissions,” said Victoria Sutherland, founder/publisher of Foreword Reviews.
Spirit in the Rock tells the story of the 1873 Modoc War—the most expensive Indian conflict in American history, and the only one in which a general—E. R. S. Canby—was killed. Award-winning broadcast journalist and author Jim Compton (1941–2014) did the research and writing, but after his unexpected death, his wife Carol Arnold, a retired trial attorney, edited and submitted the manuscript to WSU Press, fulfilling Compton’s publishing ambitions.
“As soon as we read the manuscript, we knew we had a winner. Jim Compton captured the war’s personalities and events in a riveting narrative that reads like a novel. It was a privilege to publish it,” WSU Press editor-in-chief Robert Clark said.
Spirit in the Rock is paperback, 6″ x 9″, 340 pages in length, and lists for $27.95. It is available through bookstores nationwide, or direct from WSU Press at 800-354-7360 or online at wsupress.wsu.edu. A nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
Founded in 1998 and based in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, Foreword Magazine, Inc. is the only media company completely devoted to independent publishing. Publishers of a Folio: award-winning bi-monthly print review journal, special interest products, and daily online content feeds, Foreword exclusively covers university and independent (non “Big 5”) publishers, the books they publish, and their authors.
Washingtonians sanctioned the first voter-approved state Equal Rights Amendment, and they were the first to elect a woman and a Chinese-American as governor. In this state full of political mavericks, split tickets are a source of pride and independent voters currently outnumber Democrats and Republicans. Sam Reed, Secretary of State from 2001 to 2013, explains in his foreword that voters participate in the most open primary system in the nation—a reflection of Washington’s Populist and Progressive era roots—a heritage that drives its citizens and elected officials to remain a powerful center of regional and national legislative change and policy innovation.
On March 5th of this year, in a direct challenge to federal laws, Governor Jay Inslee signed the nation’s first state law that prohibits internet service providers from blocking and slowing down online content—evidence that the state still cultivates political mavericks. Written as a guide for residents and for use in higher education classrooms, Governing the Evergreen State: Political Life in Washingtonprovides an updated and absorbing look at Washington’s ever-evolving state political and judicial system and presents intriguing case studies. Fresh analyses from a wide variety of contributors offer springboards for further discussion. The author roster includes university academics, a senator, a pollster, a newspaper reporter/blogger, a former state Supreme Court chief justice, and a court administrator. Together, they deliver seasoned perspectives on a continually transforming political landscape.
The volume’s first section examines political setting and behavior. Chapters explore state culture, elections, political parties, interest groups, media coverage, and a new topic—Washington’s increasing diversity and role as a protector of civil rights. The second section looks at government institutions and has chapters on the state’s constitution, legislature, governor and other executives, and the judicial system. New topics include continuity and change in public policy, and environmental and natural resource policy.
This compilation is the sixth in a series dedicated to Washington State government and politics. Previous volumes in the series are Governing Washington (2011), Washington State Government and Politics (2004), Government and Politics in the Evergreen State (1992), Political Life in Washington (1985), and The Government and Politics of Washington State (1978). Like these prior editions, Governing the Evergreen State: Political Life in Washington is a cooperative project between WSU Press and The Thomas S. Foley Institute for Public Policy and Public Service.
PULLMAN, Wash.— A Washington State University (WSU) Press title, We Are Aztlán!: Chicanx Histories in the Northern Borderlands, has been selected as a Choice Outstanding Academic Title. It also received a top community college recommendation from the organization. Focusing on the Pacific Northwest and the Midwest, multidisciplinary essays in We Are Aztlán! examine the Chicanx movement and experience beyond the Southwest to illuminate how Mexican Americans have challenged racialization, marginalization, and isolation in the northern borderlands.
Every year in the January issue, in print and online, Choice publishes their picks for Outstanding Academic Titles—a prestigious list that reflects the best scholarly titles they reviewed over the past year and carries extraordinary recognition from the academic library community. Only about ten percent of the approximately 6,000 works Choice reviews each year are included.
In awarding Outstanding Academic Titles, the editors examine overall excellence in presentation and scholarship; importance relative to other literature in the field; distinction as a first treatment of a given subject in book or electronic form; originality or uniqueness of treatment; value to undergraduate students; and importance in building undergraduate library collections.
The review itself reveals several of the ways We Are Aztlán! met Choice’s criteria. Critic J. G. Moreno from Northern Arizona University wrote, “This scholarly collection challenges the usual southwest focus on the Mexican and Latino experiences and diverse populations in the US…Each contributor’s academic findings are based on historical archival and oral interviews, which makes this book original and organic. This is the first book collection that links the various Mexican and Latino social and cultural experiences within the US Pacific northwest and midwest regions. García’s leadership in bringing together several scholars will result in major contributions for future research and scholarship on this critical subject matter.”
Choice is part of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) division of the American Library Association. Together, Choice and ACRL provide libraries with professional development tools, including objective, high-quality evaluations of nonfiction academic writing. Their flagship publication, Choice Reviews (www.choicereviews.org), contains over 200,000 reviews of academic monographs. They publish around 5,000 new reviews annually and serve more than 2,400 institutions worldwide.
WSU Press is a nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, and concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
PULLMAN, Wash.— Author Kit Bakke believes that the freedom to organize and protest are crucial to American democracy. But across the nation in the late 1960s and early 1970s, courtroom decisions and the FBI’s utilization of wiretapping, warrantless break-ins, and informants were destroying activist groups and threatening those rights. The Emerald City was no exception. In her new book, Protest on Trial: The Seattle 7 Conspiracy, Bakke chronicles the dramatic story surrounding the arrests and trial of seven Seattle Liberation Front (SLF) leaders.
As anti-Vietnam efforts accelerated across the U.S., young activists converged on Seattle, drawn by its natural environment, counter-culture reputation, and history of political dissent. After a February 1970 antiwar demonstration at the city’s downtown federal courthouse culminated with multiple injuries and arrests, the Seattle 7—Michael Abeles, Jeff Dowd, Joe Kelly, Michael Lerner, Roger Lippman, Chip Marshall, and Susan Stern—faced federal conspiracy and intent to riot indictments. When it appeared the government would lose their case, the presiding judge issued a stunning ruling that abruptly ended the chaotic proceedings and sent the defendants to prison.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and President Nixon’s Attorney General John Mitchell had targeted the SLF for, as Hoover termed it, “neutralization.” Bakke examines their tactics and contemplates why the Department of Justice chose to use a heavyweight legal weapon in Seattle, even though other cities harbored larger and more violent antiwar targets.
Like the trial, the counterculture movement was improvisational and messy. The Seattle 7 inhabited an exhausting vortex of idealism, violent rhetoric and indulgent pleasures. Bakke conducted dozens of interviews with defendants, their attorneys, FBI agents, journalists, jurors, the U.S. Marshal, students, and SLF members, supporters, and critics. She is the first book author to focus on the anti-Vietnam movement in a single city and include perspectives from participants on both sides of the barricades. She shares their thoughts as they reflect on that politically complex and emotional time.
Although not in Seattle, Bakke was an activist, and is intimately familiar with the political and social culture. In college, she founded a chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). After graduation, she worked in the SDS Chicago national office and later joined the militant Weatherman faction, participating in antiwar and anti-capitalism actions around the country. Born and raised in Seattle, she returned to work as a pediatric oncology nurse. She holds bachelor’s degrees in nursing and political science, and master’s degrees in nursing and public health. Today, she volunteers in local philanthropic organizations and writes. Her first book was Miss Alcott’s E-Mail: Yours for Reforms of All Kinds.
Just published by Washington State University (WSU) Press, Protest on Trialis paperback, 6″ x 9″, 252 pages, and lists for $22.95. It is available through bookstores nationwide, direct from WSU Press at 800-354-7360, or online at wsupress.wsu.edu. A nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
Celebrated mariner Captain James Cook set sail on his third exploratory venture in July 1776, and the British Admiralty produced an official record shortly after the expedition’s 1780 return. Now, just before the 250th anniversary of Cook’s first voyage, the newest book from Washington State University (WSU) Press depicts his final quest. Captain Cook’s Final Voyage: The Untold Story from the Journals of James Burney and Henry Roberts, integrates images by official expedition artist John Webber and makes two previously unpublished eyewitness accounts easily accessible.
Tasked with confirming the outline of North America’s Pacific seaboard and searching for the elusive Northwest Passage, Cook left Plymouth and traveled to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands. From there, he explored the Pacific Northwest’s coastline, landing near Oregon’s Cape Foulweather and eventually entering Vancouver Island’s Nootka Sound. He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot and then sailed to the Bering Strait, where he identified Alaska’s Cook Inlet.
Written by two young officers and discovered languishing in Australian archives, the journals chronicle landings along Hawaii, Vancouver Island, and Alaska, as well as initial European contact and Cook’s dramatic death at Kealakekua Bay, and include charts and drawings. They provide the first reasonably accurate maps of North America’s west coast and the earliest comprehensive report from the Bering Sea ice pack. Yet the men kept their existence a secret. If the British Admiralty had discovered the documents, it likely would have ended their careers.
First lieutenant James Burney offers a scarce account from the consort vessel, Discovery, providing new details and important, thoughtful impressions of North and South Pacific people and places. Working under the notorious William Bligh, Resolution Master’s Mate Henry Roberts performed essential hydrographic and cartographic tasks. He was only a few feet away when Cook perished. His logbook includes coordinates, tables of routes, records of weather at sea, and lively depictions of shore excursions.
Editor James K. Barnett is an Alaskan attorney who has written, co-edited, or contributed to multiple books and anthologies on Captain James Cook, Captain George Vancouver, and the history of Alaska. He served as president of the Cook Inlet Historical Society in Anchorage from 1998 to 2015, and found these long forgotten journals and images while researching in Sydney nearly ten years ago. He contributes context and commentary to complete the story
PULLMAN, Wash.— Washington State University (WSU) Press has signed a new contract with Book Travelers West. The publisher had maintained a long term relationship with Hand Associates, but that group collectively decided to retire and close the business. Effective January 1, 2018, the current Book Travelers West sales team—Kurtis Lowe, John Majeska, Phoebe Gaston, and Kevin Peters—is representing Washington State University Press to the book trade. The commissioned sales group has been selling books in the thirteen Western states since 1951.
“As a regional press, we were impressed that Travelers West maintains solid relationships with larger bookstores in the West, but also visits many of the smaller booksellers as well. Store owners we asked spoke highly of the sales team. We also felt our list would complement those of other publishers they represent,” WSU Press Marketing Manager Caryn Lawton said. WSU Press is a nonprofit academic publisher associated with Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, and concentrates on telling unique, focused stories of the Northwest.
We invited forest specialist Kevin Zobrist to give us his perspective on Christmas trees:
There’s a reason Washington is the “Evergreen State”
Several western Washington native tree species—particularly Douglas-fir, grand fir, and noble fir—have a national reputation as quality Christmas trees. Grand fir and Douglas-fir grow naturally throughout western Washington, while the noble fir’s natural range is at high elevation in the Cascades from approximately Snoqualmie Pass southward. Each species has different advantages. I have always favored the true firs (as opposed to Douglas-fir) for how they look, their longevity after cutting, and, perhaps most importantly, how they smell. When I teach classes on native trees, I have participants pinch off needles from different samples, break them in half, and sniff. When it comes to grand fir, the response is always “it smells like Christmas.” Other true firs have a similar fragrance—a rich balsam scent that many people associate with the season.
I think the best part of choosing a fresh-cut Christmas tree, whether U-cut or pre-cut, is the family memories it generates. Christmas tree lots and farms sell experiences as much as trees. Some of my strongest holiday recollections involve getting the tree. I looked forward to that day almost as much as Christmas itself. Early on the first or second Saturday of December and after a slight detour for an enormous breakfast at Ken’s Truck Stop, we’d head out to a local Christmas tree farm, usually in North Bend. Recalling those days brings many things to mind—the crisp air, the smell of fresh-cut trees, hay rides, candy canes, and hot apple cider.
These days we typically get a tree from a lot, since there is one within walking distance of our house. I simply carry the tree home instead of worrying about how to transport it in a much-too-small car. Even this produces fond memories when, just as before, we meticulously try to pick the perfect one. During the big snow and deep freeze of December 2008, all the trees remained baled and frozen in big green blocks. I had to make a choice without knowing what the tree would look like. Once thawed, it unfolded into one of the best-looking trees we ever had.
All trees are not the same
Grand firs have been our standard, though in recent years we have “upgraded” to noble fir. Nobles are more expensive and their fragrance is not as strong as a grand fir, but they are wonderful in appearance. They have a slight blue tint due to two stripes on each side of their needles (grand firs only have them on the bottom). These stomatal bands reveal the location of the tree’s breathing pores. Nobles are a little more open than grand fir, which is nice for displaying ornaments.
Fresh vs. faux
In recent decades, the popularity of artificial trees has increased immensely, although they don’t have the natural look, feel, and fragrance of a real tree. There are advantages. Faux evergreens don’t make a mess, need watering, dry out, or require disposal every year, and for those with allergies, they offer a good alternative. They also don’t bring in bugs, although I appreciate even this part of the real tree experience. Every year a small spider, usually beautifully colored, is brought in on our tree. It is attracted to the light of the star at the top and builds a small web around it. I have developed a fondness for these “Christmas spiders.”
There are legitimate reasons for going artificial, but the idea that it is more environmentally friendly because it doesn’t involve cutting a live tree represents a fundamental misunderstanding of how Christmas trees are grown. No forests are leveled to produce Christmas trees. Rather, they are grown on farms and are a relatively eco-friendly form of agriculture since they do not require the same sort of annual tillage and soil disturbance as other crops. The number of young, immature trees left to continue growing far exceeds the number cut, and farms plant a replacement for each one, providing a sustainable supply year after year along with continuous vegetative cover that provides wildlife benefits.
Fresh-cut Christmas trees are a fully renewable, recyclable, and biodegradable product. As they grow, they sequester carbon that is released slowly during decomposition then recaptured by the next rotation of trees. In contrast, artificial trees are produced from nonrenewable petroleum-based chemicals that produce significant carbon emissions and other pollutants during their manufacture.
Their eventual disposal is not environmentally friendly.
The tree always looks much smaller on the lot than in your living room, so be conservative on size.
Make sure the tree is correctly labeled and priced for its species. I often see grand firs labeled as Douglas-firs, noble firs marked as grand firs, etc., especially on lots. Native Trees of Western Washington (WSU Press) can help you accurately identify the species you want.
Look for healthy green needles. Shake the tree to make sure there is not excessive needle drop.
At home, put your tree in water right away. If you are not going to set it up immediately in its stand, leave it in a bucket of water in an unheated area to avoid excessive drying.
Make a new cut on the bottom of the trunk before putting it in the tree stand, as the exposed initial cut will have sealed over, inhibiting water uptake.
Keep the bottom of the trunk in constant contact with water—don’t let the reservoir dry up. For the first few days you may have to add water several times a day, so check it frequently.
Use plain water—there is no need to add preservatives or other chemicals.
After the holidays are over, recycle your tree. In many neighborhoods, a local non-profit group such as the Boy Scouts will pick it up from your curb on a donation basis. The trees they collect are chipped and given new life as natural mulches. If you have commercial yard waste pickup, you can cut the tree up and put it in your yard waste bin to become compost. Do NOT discard your tree by dumping it in a greenbelt or natural area.
Kevin Zobrist is the author of Native Trees of Western Washington: A Photographic Guide. He is an associate professor at Washington State University and oversees the Extension Forestry program in Snohomish, Skagit, King, Island, and Whatcom Counties. He spends his time on public education, outreach, and applied research, working primarily with small forest landowners. Kevin and his colleagues offer classes, workshops, webinars, tours, and field days. They also provide online resources and “how to” publications. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
We will host our twenty-sixth annual holiday book fair on Thursday, December 7, 2017 from 11:00 a.m.–3:00 p.m., in the Terrell Library Atrium on the Pullman campus. The fair highlights books published throughout the year and is open to everyone. Festivities include steep discounts of 20 -50% on all titles, drawings for free books, and complimentary refreshments.
Author and University of Idaho professor Dr. Rodney Frey will be signing copies of his recently released book, Carry Forth the Stories. Intertwining his own as well as stories from interviews, oral histories, and elders, the seasoned anthropologist/ethnographer offers a model for engaging with indigenous peoples as well as personal and professional insights into the power and value of storytelling.
The fair will feature other new titles on a variety of subjects—the 1872 Modoc War; early 1900s polar explorer Ernest Leffingwell; the creation of the North Cascades National Park; the Northwest’s Chicanx history; a regional reporter’s memoirs; the hidden history of Puget Sound’s female Native founders; and the irrigation of Idaho’s Snake River plain.
Founded in 1928 and revitalized in the 1980s, WSU Press concentrates on telling unique, focused stories about the Northwest. For more information about the book fair, contact WSU Press at 509-335-7880 or 800-354-7360. Throughout the Holiday Book Fair week, December 4-8, 2017, sale prices will be valid for phone orders of all titles as well as online orders of the ten titles released since last year.
As a member of the 1906 Anglo-American Polar Expedition, Arctic explorer Ernest deKoven Leffingwell (1875–1971) helped determine the edge of the continental shelf—the first solid evidence that searching for land north of Alaska was likely futile. The University of Chicago-trained geologist remained on Flaxman Island, and with assistance from his indigenous neighbors, was the first to define and chart the geography and geology of the region. His groundbreaking work included creating detailed, accurate maps of Alaska’s northeast coast (now part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge), pioneering studies of ground ice (permafrost), explaining ice wedges, and identifying the Sadlerochit Formation, Prudhoe Bay oilfield’s main reservoir. He also observed birds and collected wildlife specimens for the Smithsonian and other institutions. “One hundred years later we’re still rediscovering things he discovered,” permafrost expert and consultant Torre Jorgenson commented.
Still, apart from geology specialists, none of it was enough to attract much notice—until Janet R. Collins, who spent thirty years as the director and map librarian at Western Washington University’s Huxley Map Library—decided Leffingwell deserved more recognition. She started giving presentations about his life, and the interest they generated led to her new biography, On the Arctic Frontier: Ernest Leffingwell’s Polar Explorations and Legacy, just published by Washington State University (WSU) Press.
At the turn of the twentieth century, people were eager for scientific knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic. Geographic societies and wealthy individuals like Alexander Graham Bell, John D. Rockefeller, and the Duchess of Bedford helped finance new explorations—including the Anglo-American Polar Expedition. For Leffingwell, it was a calling. He relied on and socialized with Inupiaq families. His favorite meat was caribou and he preferred fur to wool. Yet despite his passion for the Arctic, it wasn’t easy. Loneliness, snow blindness, weather-sensitive instruments, and the exhausting rigors of sledge travel pushed the meticulous, driven leader to his limits. Through trial and error, he coped with the drifting ice floes, interminable darkness, and bitter cold of a harsh, polar environment.
Leffingwell recorded his findings in the 250-page U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 109. To write her biography, Collins utilized that report as well as published and unpublished writing by a variety of polar expedition members, newspaper articles, and Leffingwell family papers and memories. Along with his accomplishments, she portrays Leffingwell’s interactions with Native friends, whalers, traders, fellow scientists, and others, and conveys his thoughts about daily life with all of its challenges, frustrations, and triumphs.
The 1873 Modoc War was the most expensive Indian conflict in American history, and the only one in which a general—E. R. S. Canby—was killed. Now, utilizing his skills as an award-winning broadcast journalist, author Jim Compton (1941–2014) tells the story in the newest title from Washington State University (WSU) Press, Spirit in the Rock: The Fierce Battle for Modoc Homelands. Following his sudden death, the author’s wife, Carol Arnold, a retired trial attorney, fulfilled his ambitions with a final edit and submission for publication.
Veteran correspondent Compton’s narrative examines events and experiences from a variety of angles, including those of Modoc warriors, army foot soldiers, and cavalry officers. Forced to fight for their ancestral territory in a brutal, bloody, and unjust dispute, the Modoc utilized guerilla tactics against the U.S. Army from a naturally protective setting—lava beds in what is now northern California. They fended off attacks by roughly a thousand soldiers, humiliating army troops and challenging their leaders. During peace negotiations, a charismatic Modoc chief known as Captain Jack fatally shot Canby. Four of Jack’s comrades betrayed him, he was captured, and the war ended. Captain Jack and three others were quickly tried and hanged at Fort Klamath.
Spirit in the Rock breaks important new ground as it analyzes underlying causes of the war. For the first time, the book details the schemes that ultimately drove the Modoc from their traditional homelands along the Lost River, calling attention to the intimate relationship between the Applegates and Frances Fuller Victor, whose flattering portrait of the famous Oregon pioneer family in various historical annals clouded understanding of the Modoc War for over a century.
A preface by respected educator and member of the Navajo Nation, Vivian Arviso, illuminates ways Native American traditions and spirituality influenced events. She also explains that the existence of the Modoc people today is a tribute to Captain Jack’s leadership, the participation of women and children in defending their land and livelihood, and the Modoc cultural spirit. In addition, historian Boyd Cothran’s afterword describes how the Modoc War shaped national perceptions of the Native American fight for survival in the West.
Original black and white photographs from the author’s private collection illustrate the story, and color images by Seattle photographer Bill Stafford reveal a contemporary view of Modoc Country. Text and maps highlight the army’s strategies as well as the brilliant maneuvers made by Modoc warriors.
Meticulously researched and footnoted, with an extensive bibliography, the book also explains why the U.S. Attorney General ordered a military tribunal to try Captain Jack as a belligerent of a foreign power. One hundred and thirty years later, the George W. Bush administration cited this precedent to justify rendition and military trial of terrorists.